全周 (9AM - 6PM)

我们和你在一起

Extra info thumb
HIGH MOBILITY GROUP NUCLEOSOMAL BINDING PROTEIN 2; HMGN2

HIGH MOBILITY GROUP NUCLEOSOMAL BINDING PROTEIN 2; HMGN2

Alternative titles; symbolsHIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEIN 17; HMG17CHROMOSOMAL PROTEIN, NONHISTONE, HMG17NONHISTONE CHROMOSOMAL PROTEIN HMG17HGNC Approved Gene Symb...

Alternative titles; symbols

  • HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEIN 17; HMG17
  • CHROMOSOMAL PROTEIN, NONHISTONE, HMG17
  • NONHISTONE CHROMOSOMAL PROTEIN HMG17

HGNC Approved Gene Symbol: HMGN2

Cytogenetic location: 1p36.11 Genomic coordinates (GRCh38): 1:26,472,439-26,476,641 (from NCBI)

▼ Cloning and Expression
Chromosomal proteins HMG17 and HMG14 (HMGN1; 163920) are among the most abundant, ubiquitous, and evolutionarily conserved nonhistone proteins found in the nuclei of higher eukaryotes. The large number of retropseudogenes are scattered over several chromosomes. Landsman and Bustin (1986) showed that the nonhistone chromosomal proteins HMG14 and HMG17 are encoded by distinct genes, each of which is part of a separate multigene family. These families may have evolved independently from similar genetic elements or from a shared ancestral gene in which the nucleotide sequence coding for the DNA-binding domain of the protein is the most conserved region. The structural differences between the molecules and the differences in their DNA-binding domains suggest that the proteins may be involved in distinguishable cellular functions. They may confer specific conformations to transcriptionally active regions of chromatin. Landsman and Bustin (1986) and Landsman et al. (1986) isolated and sequenced full-length cDNAs for human HMG14 and HMG17. The sequences indicate that these are both functional genes.

▼ Gene Function
Porkka et al. (2002) reported a cDNA that encodes a fragment of HMGN2, a highly conserved nucleosomal protein thought to be involved in unfolding higher-order chromatin structure and facilitating the transcriptional activation of mammalian genes (Bustin, 1999). Porkka et al. (2002) derived a 31-amino acid synthetic peptide from this HMGN2 fragment which, when injected intravenously, accumulates in the nuclei of tumor endothelial cells and tumor cells, carrying a payload to a tumor and into the cell nuclei in the tumor. They suggested that the peptide may be suitable for targeting cytotoxic drugs and gene therapy vectors into tumors.

▼ Gene Structure
West et al. (2001) stated that the HMGN2 gene contains 6 exons and spans 3.5 kb. They noted that the promoter region contains CpG islands. West et al. (2001) determined that the promoter also contains a CCAAT box, several Sp1 (189906)-binding sites, and an SRY (480000)-binding site.

▼ Mapping
A 3-prime flanking subfragment of the HMG17 gene was used by Mitchell et al. (1988) to map the HMG17 gene to chromosome 1 by Southern analysis of DNA from human-rodent hybrid cells; analysis of hybrids containing breaks or translocations involving chromosome 1 permitted tentative localization to 1p34-p12. RFLPs were identified. Mitchell et al. (1988) concluded that there may be a single functional HMG17 gene in humans, but an unusually large number of processed pseudogenes (Srikantha et al., 1987). Mitchell et al. (1989) assigned the HMG17 gene to human chromosome 1p36.1-p35 on the basis of in situ hybridization data. Linkage studies using a polymorphic marker detected by the HMG17 probe placed the HMG17 locus 1.7 cM (sex averaged) from RH, which is localized to 1p36.2-p34.

By in situ hybridization, Popescu et al. (1990) mapped HMG17 to 1p36.1.

Tags: 1p36.11