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TCL1 UPSTREAM NEURAL DIFFERENTIATION-ASSOCIATED RNA; TUNAR

TCL1 UPSTREAM NEURAL DIFFERENTIATION-ASSOCIATED RNA; TUNAR

Alternative titles; symbolsTCL1 UPSTREAM NEURON-ASSOCIATED RNA; TUNALONG INTERGENIC NONCODING RNA 617; LINC00617lincRNA TUNARHGNC Approved Gene Symbol: TUNARCyto...

Alternative titles; symbols

  • TCL1 UPSTREAM NEURON-ASSOCIATED RNA; TUNA
  • LONG INTERGENIC NONCODING RNA 617; LINC00617
  • lincRNA TUNAR

HGNC Approved Gene Symbol: TUNAR

Cytogenetic location: 14q32.2 Genomic coordinates (GRCh38): 14:95,876,391-95,925,570 (from NCBI)

▼ Description
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), such as TUNAR, are regulatory RNAs of more than 200 nucleotides that are involved in gene expression. LncRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase, 5-prime capped, spliced, and polyadenylated (summary by Lin et al., 2014).

▼ Cloning and Expression
Lin et al. (2014) cloned mouse Tunar, which they called Tuna, linc86023, or Megamind, from the CCE mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) line. RACE followed by Northern blot and database analyses revealed 2 Tuna splice variants containing 3,181 and 2,876 nucleotides. Database analysis revealed the human ortholog, which was actively transcribed in H1 human ESCs and in neuronal, but not nonneuronal, nuclei from juvenile and adult brain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 15 mouse tissues, embryos, and cells detected highest Tuna expression in adult brain and spinal cord, with much lower expression in adult eye, mESCs, and 15-day mouse embryos. TUNA was also highly expressed in human cerebellum, with lower expression in whole adult and fetal brain and adult testis. Microarray analysis revealed TUNA expression in several human brain regions, but not in neocortex. Highest expression was detected in thalamus. Tuna was enriched in the nuclear fraction of mESCs, but was also found in the cytoplasmic fraction.

▼ Gene Function
Lin et al. (2014) found that manipulation of Tuna expression in mESCs affected global gene expression, with marked changes in genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, cell death, and neurogenesis. Tuna formed an RNA-multiprotein complex with Ptbp1 (600693), Hnrnpk (600712), and Ncl (164035). This complex was specifically enriched at the promoters of Sox2 (184429), Nanog (607937), and Fgf4 (164980). Knockdown of Tuna in mESCs reduced expression of pluripotency-related Nanog and Oct4 (POU5F1; 164177) mRNAs, whereas Tuna overexpression increased expression of these genes and promoted cell proliferation. Knockdown of TUNA also blocked neural differentiation in H9 human ESCs.

▼ Gene Structure
Lin et al. (2014) determined that the TUNAR gene contains 2 exons.

▼ Mapping
By genomic sequence analysis, Lin et al. (2014) mapped the TUNAR gene to chromosome 14q32. They mapped the mouse Tunar gene to chromosome 12F1.

▼ Animal Model
Lin et al. (2014) found that morpholino-mediated knockdown of tuna in zebrafish impaired their response to touch.

Tags: 14q32.2