Alternative titles; symbolsMETASTINKISSPEPTINHGNC Approved Gene Symbol: KISS1Cytogenetic location: 1q32.1 Genomic coordinates (GRCh38): 1:204,190,340-204,196...
Alternative titles; symbols
HGNC Approved Gene Symbol: KISS1
Cytogenetic location: 1q32.1 Genomic coordinates (GRCh38): 1:204,190,340-204,196,490 (from NCBI)
▼ Cloning and Expression
Welch et al. (1994) found that microcell-mediated transfer of human chromosome 6 into human metastatic melanoma cells (C8161 or MelJuSo) suppressed their ability to metastasize in athymic nude mice by at least 95% without affecting the tumorigenicity of the cells. Using a modified subtractive hybridization approach, Lee et al. (1996) isolated a cDNA expressed in hybrid chromosome 6-C8161 cells but not in parental C8161 cells. They designated the cDNA KISS1, combining laboratory nomenclature for putative suppressor sequences with acknowledgment of the gene's discovery in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Lee et al. (1996) reported the sequence of the predicted KISS1 protein and a corrected sequence in a published erratum. The KISS1 protein consists of 145 amino acids. Northern blot analysis revealed that KISS1 was expressed as a 1-kb mRNA in chromosome 6-C8161 hybrid cell lines as well as in normal placenta tissue. Low levels of smaller transcripts were observed in pancreas and kidney. Lee et al. (1996) did not detect KISS1 expression in any cell line capable of metastasizing in athymic nude mice.
By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Lee et al. (1996) mapped the KISS1 gene to 1q32-q41. They suggested that a metastasis-suppressing gene or genes on chromosome 6 regulate KISS1. By radiation hybrid mapping and FISH, West et al. (1998) localized the KISS1 gene to 1q32.
▼ Gene Function
Lee et al. (1996) observed that expression of KISS1 in C8161 melanoma cells suppressed metastasis, suggesting that KISS1 plays a role in the regulation of cancer metastasis in human malignant melanoma. Lee and Welch (1997) demonstrated that expression of KISS1 in human breast carcinoma cells reduced metastatic potential by 95% compared to control cells but did not suppress tumorigenicity. The authors concluded that KISS1 also functions as a metastasis suppressor gene in at least some human breast cancers.
Ohtaki et al. (2001) demonstrated that KISS1 encodes a carboxy-terminally amidated peptide with 54 amino acid residues, which the authors isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPR54; 604161). They named the truncated form of KISS1 'metastin.' Metastin inhibits chemotaxis and invasion of GPR54-transfected CHO cells in vitro and attenuates pulmonary metastasis of GPR54-transfected B16-BL6 melanomas in vivo.
Using real-time PCR, Shahab et al. (2005) found that expression of Kiss1 mRNA increased with puberty in both male and female rhesus monkeys. Kisspeptin-10 (112-121), a decapeptide derived from KISS1, was administered to agonadal juvenile monkeys and induced a GnRH (152760) response as measured by a surge in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH; see 152780). In intact females, but not in agonadal males, the level of Gpr54 mRNA in the hypothalamus increased about 3-fold from the juvenile to midpubertal stage. In situ hybridization detected robust Kiss1 and Gpr54 expression in the arcuate nucleus. Shahab et al. (2005) concluded that KISS1 signaling through GPR54 in the primate hypothalamus at the end of the juvenile phase of development may contribute to the pubertal resurgence of pulsatile GnRH release.
Kinoshita et al. (2005) examined whether metastin, the product of metastasis suppressor gene KISS1, is a central neuropeptide regulating GnRH/LH surge and then estrous cyclicity in the female rat. Injection of metastin into the third ventricle or preoptic area increased plasma LH concentrations in estrogen-primed ovariectomized rats, demonstrating that metastin profoundly stimulates LH secretion by acting on the preoptic area, where most GnRH neurons projecting to the median eminence are located. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated metastin neurons in the arcuate nucleus colocalized with estrogen receptors, with some fibers in the preoptic area in close apposition with GnRH neuronal cell bodies or fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed KISS1 and GPR54 (606161) mRNAs expressed in the arcuate nucleus and preoptic area, respectively. The blockade of local metastin action in the preoptic area with a specific monoclonal antibody to rat metastin completely abolished proestrous LH surge and inhibited estrous cyclicity. In the arcuate nucleus, numbers of metastin-immunoreactive cell bodies and c-Fos (164810) expression were significantly higher in the early proestrus afternoon compared with the day of diestrus. Thus, Kinoshita et al. (2005) concluded that metastin released in the preoptic area is involved in inducing the preovulatory LH surge and regulating estrous cyclicity.
Navarro et al. (2005) studied the effect of KISS1 peptide on LH secretion using in vitro and in vivo settings under different experimental conditions. Central intracerebroventricular administration of KISS1 peptide potently elicited LH secretion in vivo over a range of doses from 10 pmol to 1 nmol. The effect of centrally injected KISS1 appeared to be mediated via the hypothalamic LHRH. However, no effect of central administration of KISS1 was detected on relative LHRH mRNA levels. Likewise, systemic (either intraperitoneal or intravascular) injection of KISS1 markedly stimulated LH secretion. Navarro et al. (2005) found that LH-releasing activity of KISS1 was persistently observed after blockade of endogenous excitatory amino acid and nitric oxide pathways, i.e., relevant neurotransmitters in the neuroendocrine control of LH secretion. Navarro et al. (2005) concluded that their results provided solid evidence for a potent stimulatory effect of KISS1 on LH release, acting at central levels (likely the hypothalamus) and eventually at the pituitary, and further documented a novel role of the KISS1/GPR54 system as a relevant downstream element in the neuroendocrine network governing LH secretion.
Smith et al. (2005) found that KISS1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which are inhibited by estradiol, may play a role in the negative feedback regulation of GnRH secretion, whereas KISS1 neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, which are stimulated by estradiol, may participate in the positive feedback regulation of GnRH secretion.
Navarro et al. (2005) studied the effects of KISS1 peptide on FSH (see 136530) secretion in vivo and in vitro. Intracerebroventricular administration of KISS1 peptide significantly stimulated FSH secretion in prepubertal and adult rats. Yet, dose-response analyses in vivo demonstrated an ED50 value for the FSH-releasing effects of KISS1 of 400 pmol, i.e., approximately 100-fold higher than that of LH. In addition, systemic injection of KISS1 significantly stimulated FSH secretion in vivo. However, KISS1 failed to elicit basal FSH release directly at the pituitary level, although it moderately enhanced GnRH-stimulated FSH secretion in vitro. Finally, Navarro et al. (2005) reported that mechanistic studies revealed that the ability of KISS1 to elicit FSH secretion was abolished by the blockade of endogenous GnRH actions, but it was persistently observed in different models of leptin (164160) insufficiency and after blockade of endogenous excitatory amino acid and nitric oxide pathways, relevant signals in the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin secretion. In summary, Navarro et al. (2005) concluded that their results extended previous observations on the role of KISS1 in the control of LH secretion and provided solid evidence for a stimulatory effect of KISS1 on FSH release, acting at a central level.
In a study of 6 healthy male volunteers, Dhillo et al. (2005) found that elevation of plasma concentrations of kisspeptin significantly increased circulating LH, FSH, and testosterone levels. Dhillo et al. (2005) suggested that kisspeptin infusion may provide a novel mechanism for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis manipulation in disorders of the reproductive system.
▼ Molecular Genetics
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 13
In a consanguineous Kurdish family in which 4 sisters had normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH13; 614842), Topaloglu et al. (2012) identified homozygosity for a missense mutation in the KISS1 gene (603286.0001) that segregated with the disease and was not found in 100 ethnically matched controls. Subsequent analysis of KISS1 in 12 additional families with normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and in 90 sporadic cases revealed no mutations.
Associations Pending Confirmation
For discussion of an association between central precocious puberty (see 176400) and variation in the KISS1 gene, see 603286.0002.
In a cohort of 65 patients with adrenal steroid hypersecretion syndromes, Berthon et al. (2020) analyzed the KISS1 and KISS1R genes and identified 1 patient with primary aldosteronism (see 103900) and hypercortisolism (see 610489) who was heterozygous for an H90D variant (rs201073751) in the KISS1 gene. The authors noted that the variant, present in the gnomAD database with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.00137, was relatively frequent in the African population (MAF = 0.022 in Africans).
▼ Animal Model
D'Anglemont de Tassigny et al. (2007) generated Kiss1-null mice that were viable and healthy with no apparent abnormalities but failed to undergo sexual maturation. Mutant female mice did not progress through the estrous cycle, had thread-like uteri and small ovaries, and did not produce mature Graffian follicles. Mutant males had small testes, and spermatogenesis arrested mainly at the early haploid spermatid stage. Both sexes had low circulating gonadotropin (LH and FSH) and sex steroid (beta-estradiol or testosterone) hormone levels. Migration of GnRH neurons into the hypothalamus appeared normal with appropriate axonal connections to the median eminence and total GnRH content. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis was functional, as shown by robust LH secretion after peripheral administration of kisspeptin. D'Anglemont de Tassigny et al. (2007) stated that the phenotypes of Gpr54- and Kiss1-null mice are virtually identical, providing direct proof that kisspeptins are the true physiologic ligand for the GPR54 receptor in vivo. The authors also noted that apart from activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, KISS1 does not seem to play a vital role in any other physiologic processes, and loss of KISS1 cannot be overcome by compensatory mechanisms.
In Kiss1 -/- female mice, Berthon et al. (2020) performed histologic analysis of the adrenal glands at 5 months and 12 months of age and observed persistence of the X-zone, a region formed by cells that retain fetal characteristics that normally degenerates after the first pregnancy in female mice and after puberty in males. There was increased expression of X-zone markers, suggesting that the X-zone was expanded in the mutant mice. The authors observed hypercorticosteronism in the female mutants that normalized by 12 months of age; hyperaldosteronism was present in both male and female mutants and persisted at 14 months.
▼ ALLELIC VARIANTS ( 2 Selected Examples):
.0001 HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM 13 WITHOUT ANOSMIA (1 family)
In 4 affected sisters from a consanguineous Kurdish family with normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH13; 614842), Topaloglu et al. (2012) identified homozygosity for a 345C-G transversion in the KISS1 gene, resulting in an asn115-to-lys (N115K) substitution at a highly conserved residue. The unaffected parents were heterozygous for the mutation, and unaffected sibs were heterozygous or homozygous for wildtype. The mutation was not found in 100 ethnically matched controls. Functional studies showed that human KISS1R (604161) had significantly reduced sensitivity to mutant kisspeptin-10, and mutant kisspeptin-10 was unable to stimulate a maximal inositol phosphate response at any concentration tested, indicating significantly reduced efficacy as well as potency.
.0002 VARIANT OF UNKNOWN SIGNIFICANCE
This variant is classified as a variant of unknown significance because its contribution to central precocious puberty (see 176400) has not been confirmed.
In a 16-year-old Brazilian boy with central precocious puberty, Silveira et al. (2010) sequenced the 3 exons of the KISS1 gene and identified heterozygosity for a c.369C-T transition in exon 3, resulting in a pro74-to-ser (P74S) substitution at a highly conserved residue within a PEST sequence in the amino-terminal region. The mutation was also detected in heterozygosity in the patient's unaffected mother and maternal grandmother, who both had menarche at appropriate ages, but was not found in 400 control alleles. Functional analysis in CHO cells showed that the capacity of the mutant to stimulate inositol phosphate production was similar to that of wildtype; however, after incubation in human serum, the capacity to stimulate signal transduction was significantly greater with the mutant than with wildtype KISS1, suggesting that the P74S variant is more stable. The proband underwent pubertal development at 1 year of age, with enlargement of the penis and testes, Tanner stage III pubic hair, bone age of 3 years, and elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. He had no neurologic symptoms, and brain MRI was normal.