Alternative titles; symbolsG PROTEIN-REGULATED INDUCER OF NEURITE OUTGROWTH 1; GRIN1KIAA1893HGNC Approved Gene Symbol: GPRIN1Cytogenetic location: 5q35.2 Gen...
Alternative titles; symbols
HGNC Approved Gene Symbol: GPRIN1
Cytogenetic location: 5q35.2 Genomic coordinates (GRCh38): 5:176,595,801-176,610,155 (from NCBI)
▼ Cloning and Expression
Chen et al. (1999) cloned mouse Gprin1, which they called Grin1. By database analysis, they identified human GPRIN1. Northern blot analysis of human brain regions showed wide distribution in brain tissue and the central nervous system with highest expression in the spinal cord. Northern blot analysis of mouse tissues detected expression in brain only, and Western analysis detected protein in mouse neuroblastoma and rat pheochromocytoma cells. Using immunofluorescence studies and Western analysis of cell fractions, the authors found that both GPRIN1 and GNAO1 (139311) are membrane-bound proteins that are enriched in the growth cones of neurites.
By sequencing clones obtained from a size-fractionated fetal brain cDNA library, Nagase et al. (2001) cloned GPRIN1, which they designated KIAA1893. The deduced 800-amino acid protein shares 46% amino acid identity with its mouse homolog. RT-PCR ELISA of human tissues detected moderate expression in brain, with low expression in lung and spleen. RT-PCR ELISA of specific brain regions detected high expression in cerebellum, followed by amygdala, hippocampus, substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus, and spinal cord, with low expression in corpus callosum.
Iida and Kozasa, 2004 noted that the deduced 856-amino acid GPRIN1 sequence shares high homology with GPRIN2 (611240) and GPRIN3 (611241) over the C-terminal region.
▼ Gene Function
Using purified recombinant GPRIN1 and GPRIN2 expressed in insect cells, as well as immunoprecipitation studies from transfected COS cells, Chen et al. (1999) showed that both GPRIN1 and GPRIN2 interacted specifically with G-alpha-o and G-alpha-z (GNAZ; 139160) bound to GTP-gamma-S or GDP-AlF4(-), but did not interact with GDP-bound forms of either G protein subunit. Chen et al. (1999) showed that coexpression of GPRIN1 or GPRIN2 with activated G-alpha-o caused formation and extension of neurite-like processes in mouse neuroblastoma cells.
By database analysis, Nagase et al. (2001) mapped the GPRIN1 gene to chromosome 5.